当你要写一篇毕业论文时,显然你已经接近教育旅程重要阶段的终点。这篇论文的重点是展示你在你所选择的学科中进行研究的技能和能力,并通过一篇对学术和科学界有价值的原创内容来展示研究成果。Dissertation通常用来展示一个本科项目中独立工作和研究的最终结果。而Thesis,通常是为完成硕士学位而写的。

然而,term dissertation也用于博士候选人在获得博士学位之前提交的最终项目。不管我们讨论的是本科生论文还是博士论文,作业的形式都非常相似,虽然博士项目要严肃更多。

 

dissertation proposal怎么写?写出最好的毕业论文并不容易。

 

大多数学生一开始都充满热情,但这个令人生畏的项目会让他们绝望。计划、研究和写作的过程将是你经历过的最漫长和最复杂的挑战。最终的结果将是非常值得的,但你要达到这一步可能需要越过许多障碍。以下是学生在写论文时最常见的一些问题:

  • 缺乏研究技能。没有足够学术写作经验的学生会认为他们只需要收集很少的相关资料并从中提取相关引用即可。那远非事实,你需要彻底分析这些材料,并在论文中进行讨论。

  • 缺乏写作技巧。写论文应遵循严格的学术写作规则。你应该以适当的形式、风格和语言写作,并确保正确地使用引用。

 

虽然挑战似乎势不可挡,但重要的是要从头开始,一步一步完成每一个阶段。下面的指导会给你指明正确的方向。

 

論文proposal(开题报告)写作指南!

我们已经解释了什么是毕业论文,但什么是论文的开题报告呢?

正如这个词本身的意思,这是一个关于毕业论文项目的提案,它需要能说服委员会成员,你将致力于研究一个有价值、有趣和复杂的问题。开题报告比最后的毕业论文要简短,但它同样重要,因为你将会根据这份报告去研究一个重要问题,并制定收集信息和写作计划。即使你的学校不强制要求有开题报告,你也应该写好并和你的导师讨论其中的要点。以下是写论文开题时需要注意的要点:

选择主题、问题和标题

  • 你的论文要解决什么问题?

  • 为何它会成为你的研究、你所属学术和科学团体的一个问题?

  • 为何找到解决方案对你来说很重要?

  • 你将如何寻找答案?

所有这些问题对于做出最终决定都很重要,一定要进行头脑风暴,选择一个有价值、独特、合理的主题。你不会希望最终错选了一个太复杂的问题,而把自己骗进死胡同。你选择的问题应当引导你得出一个可验证的假设,让你可以用有力的论据来证明。

在你开始写提案之前,和你的导师讨论一些论文题目的备选方案。

开题报告的结构

如果想让你的提案有说服力,它的格式必须是清晰明了,容易理解的。以下是开题报告中应该包括的要点:

  • 论文标题

  • 目的——力争达到三个目的。如果你在这一点上做得太过宽泛,就会显得你的计划没有重点,所以你需要缩小它的范围。

  • 文献——询问你的导师是否需要你在这部分列出一些具体的参考资料。即使不需要,你也要提到你在研究阶段会用到的学习领域、思想流派和其他信息来源。

  • 研究——这是主要部分,在这里你将阐述你的研究问题的想法。你要清楚地指出研究的领域。

  • 研究方法——论文项目可以是未经验证的(如数据来自已发表过的项目),也可以是经过验证的(如你通过问卷或其他方法收集的数据)。在本节中,您需要解释收集数据的方法。

  • 潜在的结果——在所有的研究和分析之后,你认为你会在哪里结束?解释你期望得到的结果。

  • 时间表——创建一个时间表,说明你在一个特定的时间线里如何管理你各个阶段的论文写作。

  • 参考名单——问问你的导师你是否应该包括这一部分,他会给你提供指导。

 

做一份大纲

你已经有了论文开题报告,那是实际论文的初步提纲。但是,对于这样的大型项目,你仍然需要一个更详细的概要。某些研究阶段是否把你引向了一个意想不到的方向?你需要确保新的要点也包含在大纲中。这是一个基本的大纲,它能让你更容易去写论文。

 

开始写一篇震撼人心的论文

    现在,你剩下的是论文写作过程中最重要的阶段了,撰写实际项目,这将是你所有努力的最终成果。令人惊讶的是,许多学生在前两个阶段都有一定程度的自信,但当他们意识到自己不知道该如何写论文时,他们就崩溃了。记住,到目前为止你已经做得很好了,所以你必须继续努力。

    当你有了计划,一切都会变得更容易。

Introduction

第一章应该包括问题的背景,以及对问题的陈述。然后,你要阐述清楚研究的目的以及研究的问题。接下来,你需要提供与项目相关术语的明确定义。你还要写出你对最终研究结果的假设和期望。

Literature Review

在论文的这一章,你要回顾你的研究过程,以及涉及到的所有重要的致谢。

Methodology

论文的这一部分重点阐述你如何定位资源,以及实现研究结果的方法。如果你在写一篇定性的论文,你要写清楚研究的问题、背景、参与者、数据收集和数据分析过程。如果你在写一篇定量的论文,你要把重点放在研究的问题和假设,关于人口和样本的信息、工具、数据收集和数据分析。

Findings

这是整个论文写作过程中最重要的一个阶段,因为它展示了你对知识的掌握能力。在这一点上,你要重申研究问题,讨论你发现的结果,解释清楚你如何得到这些结果。换句话说,您就是在回答你最初提出的问题。

Conclusions

在论文的最后一章,你将总结你的研究并简要报告结果。不要忘记,你必须说明你的发现如何在学术界产生影响,以及它们如何在实践中意味着什么。在本章的最后,加上“未来的研究建议”,写出你未来的研究计划,这能更进一步地阐明这个议题。解释以下你为什么提出这样的研究建议,它应该采取什么形式去完成。

Bibliography

针对你的研究领域使用推荐的引用格式,并确保包含了你在研究和写作阶段所使用的所有资源。

 

 

管理好你的时间

你需要另一个时间轴,这个时间轴将集中在写作过程上。计划如何一章一章地完成你的论文。当你有了可以实现的目标时,你就可以更容易地进行写作,而不会被它的长度和复杂性所难倒。

 

写出首稿

在这一点上没有特殊的建议。你只需要远离让你分心的事情,坚持你的时间表,按照大纲,完成首稿。这样你已经具备了所有的条件,你已经准备好做真正的工作了。

 

进行有效的研究

    论文的研究阶段将决定你的项目的整体发展,它必须是有系统的和有效的,因为你不会希望浪费时间在阅读和分析无关的资源上。这里有一些建议可以帮助你度过难关:

为研究阶段制定时间表

找到足够的资源来充分理解你所关注的现象是很重要的,但你需要在某个时候停止研究。许多学生会掉进一个陷阱,他们认为必须阅读所有关于他们将要阐述的论文问题所写的东西。你计划在研究阶段花多少时间?制定一个时间表,并坚持执行。研究阶段的重点是表明你已经阅读了这个主题,你已经理解之前的研究,并且你也知道它的局限性。

到合适的地方寻找资源

在研究阶段,互联网是一个很好的起点。然而,你必须意识到,并不是你在网上读到的所有东西都是绝对正确的。仔细检查你找到的信息,确保它的来源可靠。使用Google Scholar来定位可靠的学术资源。维基百科不是一个可靠的来源,但如果你查看了你感兴趣的页面上的参考书目列表,它可能会让你找到一些很好的出版著作。图书馆管理员在研究进程中能提供很多帮助,不要脱离真实的图书馆,要求图书管理员给你提供一些有趣的出版物。

组织好你的资源

    你必须做好笔记,否则,你将会非常困惑,并且你将不知道要在哪里放置计划使用的某个重要的论点。使用Evernote、Penzu或其他在线工具记录你的想法,以及你计划引用的资源。

获得反馈

在你向委员会提交论文项目之前,你需要先得到一些反馈,可以从一个有这方面知识的朋友或同事开始。你需要找个值得信任的人,因为你需要拥有论文唯一的知识产权。询问他们的意见和改进建议。然后和你的导师讨论这个项目,他/她会给你指出其中的一些缺点,而且你会得到准备演示之前所有进程的指导。

 

论文的写作过程是一个很大的挑战,并不是所有的学生都能应付。你们要记住,你们在学习上的道路上已经走了这么远,除了前进别无他法。一个一个阶段地完成这个项目,你很快就会完成你整个学习旅程中最重要的一篇论文。

論文proposal範例:

When you get tothe point of writing a dissertation, you’re clearly near the end of an important stage of your educational journey. The point of this paper is to showcase your skills and capacity to conduct research in your chosen discipline, and present the results through an original piece of content that will provide value for the academic and scientific community. This term is usually used to present the final result of independent work and research for an undergraduate program. A thesis, on the other hand, is crafted for the completion of a Master’s degree.

However, the term dissertation is also used for the final project that PhD candidates present before gaining their doctoral degree. It doesn’t matter whether we are talking about an undergraduate or PhD dissertation; the form of the assignment is very similar, although the PhD project is much more serious.

It’s not easy towrite the best dissertation.

Most candidates usually start with great enthusiasm, but this intimidating project can throw them to despair. The process of planning, research, and writing will be the longest and most complex challenge you’ve ever committed to. The end result will be very rewarding, but you might go through several obstacles to get to that point. These are some of the most common problems students have when writing their dissertations:

  • Lack of research skills. Students who don’t have enough experience with     academic writing think they just need to collect few relevant resources and extract relevant quotes from them. That’s far from the truth. You need to analyze those materials thoroughly and discuss them in the paper.

  • Lack of writing skills. The dissertation paper should follow the strict rules of academic writing. You should write in proper form, style, and language; and you should make sure to implement the correct citation guidelines.

Although the challenge seems overwhelming, the important thing is to start from the beginning and complete each stage step by step. We have a guide that will show you the right direction.


Write adissertation proposal

We already explained what a dissertation paper is, but what is a dissertation proposal?
As the term itself suggests, this is a proposal for the final dissertation project, which should persuade the committee members that you’re going to commit to a valuable, interesting, and complex questions. This is a shorter paper than the final dissertation, but it’s equally as important because this is the point when you’ll think of a significant question and you’ll set up aplan for assembling information and writing the paper. Even if the proposal is not mandatory in your university, you should still write it and discuss the points with your mentor. These are the main points to pay attention to when wondering how to write a dissertation proposal:

Choose the theme, question, and title

  • – What problem is your dissertation going to tackle?

  • – Why is it a problem for the research, academic, and scientific community you’ll belong to?

  • – Why is it important for you to find a solution?

  • – How are you going to search for the answers?

Do you want to find out more about choosing your dissertation topic? Check out our article.
All these questions are important for making the final commitment. Make sure to brainstorm and choose a theme that will be valuable, unique, and reasonable.You don’t want to end up with a too complex question that would trick you in a dead end. The question you choose should lead you to a testable hypothesis that you can prove with strong arguments. 
Discuss few alternatives of the dissertation title with your mentor before you start writing the proposal.

Structure of the dissertation proposal
If you want to make the proposal convincing, its format has to be clean andeasy to follow. Here are the points you should include in the proposal:

  • Dissertation title

  • Objectives – Aim for up to three objectives. If you’re too extensive at this point, it will seem like your plan doesn’t have a focus, so you’ll need to narrow it down.

  • Literature – Ask your mentor if you’re expected to list some specific references in this section. If that’s not the case, you’ll at least need to mention the areas of study, schools of thought, and other sources of information you’re going to use during the research stage.

  • Research – This is the main section, where you’ll elaborate the ideas of your research question. You will clearly outline the area of research.

  • Methodology – The dissertation project can be non-empirical (if the resources come from previously published projects) or empirical (if you collect data through questionnaires or other methods). In this section, you need to explain the methods of collecting data.

  • Potential outcomes – Where do you think you’ll end up after all the research and analyzing? Explain the outcome you expect to come down to.

  • Timeframe – Create a schedule that explains how you will manage all     stages of dissertation writing within a specific timeframe.

  • List of references – Ask your mentor if you’re supposed to include this part, and he’ll provide you with the instructions.

 

Make an outline
You already have the dissertation proposal, which is a preliminary outline for the actual dissertation. However, you still need a more detailed outline for the large project. Did the research stage lead you in an unexpected direction? Make sure to include the new points in your outline.

 

Write amind-blowing dissertation
Now, you’re left with the most important stage of the dissertation writing process: composing the actual project, which will be the final product of allyour efforts. It’s surprising to see that many students have some level of confidence during the previous two stages of the process, but they crack when they realize they don’t really know how to write a dissertation. Remember: you already did a great job up to this point, so you have to proceed. Everything is easier when you have a plan.

Introduction
The first chapter should include a background of the problem, and a statement of the issue. Then, you’ll clarify the purpose of the study, as well as the research question. Next, you’ll need to provide clear definitions of the terms related to the project. You will also expose your assumptions and expectations of the final results.

Literature Review
In this chapter of the dissertation, you will review the research process and the most important acknowledgements you’ve come down to.

Methodology
This part of the dissertation is focused on the way you located the resources and the methods of implementation of the results. If you’re writing a qualitative dissertation, you will expose the research questions, setting, participants, data collection, and data analysis processes. If, on the other hand, you’re writing a quantitative dissertation, you will focus this chapter on the research questions and hypotheses, information about the population and sample, instrumentation, collection of data, and analysis of data.

Findings
This is the most important stage in the whole process of dissertation writing, since it showcases your intellectual capacity. At this point, you’ll restate the research questions and you will discuss the results you found, explaining the direction they led you to. In other words, you’ll answer those questions.

Conclusions
In the final chapter of the dissertation, you will summarize the study and you’ll briefly report the results. Don’t forget that you have to explain how your findings make a difference in the academic community and how they areimplied in practice. At the end of this chapter, include a “Recommendations for future research” section, where you’ll propose future research that will clarify the issue further. Explain why you suggest this research and what form it should take.

Bibliography
Use the recommended citation style for your field of study, and make sure to include all sources you used during the research and writing stages.

Manage your time
You’ll need another timeline, but this one will be focused on the writing process. Plan how to complete your dissertation chapter by chapter. When you have attainable goals, it will be easier for you to write the project without getting overwhelmed by its length and complexity.

Write the firstdraft
There is no life-changing advice to give at this point. You just need to stay away from distractions, stick to your timeline, follow the outline, and complete the first draft. You already have what it takes; now you’re ready to do the real work.

Conduct aneffective research
The dissertation research stage is going to determine the overall development of your project. It has to be methodical and effective, since you don’t want to waste your time reading and analyzing irrelevant resources. Here are a few tips that will help you go through it:

Make a timeline for the research stage
It’s important to find enough resources to fully understand the phenomenon you’re focused on, but you’ll need to stop researching at one point or another. Many students fall into a trap: they think they have to read everything that was ever written regarding the dissertation question they are about to elaborate. How much time do you plan to spend in the research stage? Make a timeline and stay committed to it. The point of the research stage is to show you have read around the topic and you understand the previous research that has been conducted, but you’ve also understood its limitations.

Find the right places to look for sources
The Internet is a good starting place during the research stage. However, you have to realize that not everything you read on the Internet is absolutely true. Double-check the information you find and make sure it comes from a trustworthy resource. Use Google Scholar to locate reliable academic sources. Wikipedia is not a reliable source, but it can take you to some great publication if you check out the list of references on the pages of your interest. Librarians are really helpful at this point of the project development. Don’t avoid the actual library and ask the librarian to provide you with some interesting publications.

Organize your resources
You have to take notes; otherwise you’ll end up seriously confused and you won’t know where you located a certain important argument that you plan to use. Use Evernote, Penzu, or another online tool to write down notes about your impressions, as well as the sources you plan to reference.

Get feedback
Before you can submit the dissertation project to the committee, you need to get some feedback. Start with a friend or colleague who has knowledge in this discipline. You need to trust this person, since the dissertation is your unique intellectual property. Ask about their opinions and suggestions for improvement. Then, discuss the project with your mentor. He/she will point out any possible weak points, and you’ll get instructions on how to finalize the process before getting ready for the presentation. 

 

The dissertation writing process is a great challenge, which not all students are capable to cope with. You need to keep in mind that you’ve come this far in your studies, so there is no other way to go but forward. Tackle the project stage by stage, and you’ll soon complete the most important paper in your whole educational journey.

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